Organic Farming in India
Organic farming: The organic fertilizer is a unique blend of synergistic plant extracts (Azadirachta indica, Pinus resinosa, Ricinus communis, etc.) well suited to all commercial crops to meet their nutrition level for growth and at the same time provide protection from harmful and damaging pest, insect, snail, fungal and viral diseases.
This results in unparalleled vegetative growth, healthier crops and better fruit yield.
Farmers have, for many decades, realized the benefits provided by the use of fertilizers on their crops in terms of accelerating plant growth, therefore increasing agricultural production and resulting in better quality food. Azadirachta indica.
Repeated farming of arable land gradually reduces the organic content of the soil and this leads to hard on soil (where soil particles become very compact and are not able to retain nutrients and moisture well).
Mineral ions and macronutrients are more readily lost by leaching and as a result, a greater amount of chemical fertilizer will be required.
Chemical fertilizers do not improve the condition of hard on soil and may contain non-biodegradable components from the manufacturing process. Run-off and leaching of chemical fertilizers are a common problem, which result in the pollution of ground water (high nitrate concentrations in water is toxic to humans) and excessive algae blooms in aquatic environments such as rivers and ponds.
There is an increasing trend in the use of organic matter to contribute to the improvement of plant nutrition, maintenance of soil fertility resulting in more stable yield levels, as well as a better resistance to some diseases and climatic stress.
Furthermore, the farmers’ economic returns have increased due to effective production.
BIO NATURE TECHNOLOGY, together with a USA agricultural research institution, has developed a range of concentrated organic agri-fertilizers that are non-toxic & environmentally friendly.
The ingredients are made from natural botanical extracts that includes major key components to enhance a proper balance for every crop cultivation.
*Essential nutrients and plant growth regulators to improve plant fertilization and enhance growth.
* Botanical extracts to aid in soil amendment.
*Biochemicals to repel insects / pests and control diseases.
Major benefits of bio nature
Plants require at least 16 essential nutrient elements.
Although macro nutrients and micro nutrients combined make up only 4% of the total weight of a plant, they are essential to the plant’s life and growth (Figure 1).
organic fertilizer enriches the plant with natural organic matter composing of macro nutrients, micro nutrients, secondary nutrients, trace elements and plant growth regulators.
Proper soil structure and nutrients allow uninterrupted and healthy plant growth. Soil with lots of organic matter remains loose, enable roots to penetrate the soil easily to absorb these nutrients and provide a steady stream of nutrients to the stems and leaves.
organic fertilizer products add organic matter to soil and this helps with soil amendment to reduce soil compaction, clodding and erosion.
Organic fertilizer can enhance the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers by reducing the rate of nitrification and this increases nitrogen availability to plants and reduces the possibility of pollution of ground water and aquatic environments. organic fertilizer does not promote the proliferation of algae in aquatic environments.
The organic fertilizer products are also fortified with the right amounts of plant growth regulators such as auxins and gibberellins, which operate at the cellular level, influence plant growth and development.
Effects include cell enlargement or elongation, seed germination, root initiation, flower initiation and development.
The natural botanical extracts in organic fertilizer products contain nutrients that require minimal processing and are thus easily absorbed and assimilated by plants.
In this way, the growth rate of the plant is improved and also develops a strong root system. This results in a healthier plant with a boosted immune system that has enhanced resistance against disease. Greater crop or fruit yield is expected, as healthier plants produce larger or more fruits.
Unlike some chemical fertilizers, organic fertilizer does not burn leaves of plants, even if applied directly onto foliage of trees, vegetables and other types of crops and organic farming.
Through evolution, many plants have gained natural resistance to insects by producing substances that act as anti-feedants. Plants may also produce natural oils or biochemicals that repel insects and pests. This natural ability has been harnessed and encompassed into organic fertilizer products that offer anti-feedant properties, and insect repellant properties. In this way, crop foliage and fruit damage is greatly reduced or controlled when organic fertilizer is applied regularly.
Organic fertilizer active compounds acts on insects by repelling them, by inhibiting feeding and by disrupting their growth, metamorphosis and reproduction. Many foliage feeding species will avoid plants treated with organic fertilizer compounds or will cease eating after ingesting them.
It is proven effective as an anti-feedant on about 100 insect species, mostly in the Orthoptera sp. (grasshoppers, crickets, katydids, etc.); Homoptera sp. (aphids, leafhoppers, scale insect, etc.); Dictyoptera sp. (cockroaches and mantids); Lepidoptera sp. (larvae of moths and butterflies); Heteroptera sp. (true bugs); Diptera sp. (flies); Coleoptera sp. (beetles and weevils); Thysanoptera sp. (thrips), and Siphonaptera sp. (flea).
This compound works especially well to protect plants from defoliation without affecting beneficial pollinating insects like bees.
Root knot nematodes are highly devastating agriculture pests and also the most difficult to control. organic fertilizer can bring down the root knot index in tomatoes and a number of other crops like chickpea, tomatoes and groundnut.
FUNGAL AND VIRAL DISEASE CONTROL
Disease fungi parasitize food crops and they exhibit distinctive symptoms like downy mildew and powdery mildew that create pale patches on the leaves of the plant. Rusts can be identified by their rusty color on the leaves. Leaf spot causes round, yellow spots on the leaves that darken over time.
Virus are spread by insect carriers especially aphids, leafhoppers, mealybugs, and whiteflies. Viral diseases damage the plant by destroying the chlorophyll in cells, causing yellowing of leaves. Symptoms of viral diseases include lower than normal yields and poor fruit or vegetable quality.
Organic fertilizer possesses anti-fungal activity. organic fertilizer can protect chickpea seeds against fungal diseases and prevent powdery mildew disease when sprayed before the outbreak of the disease.
Root drenched with organic fertilizer helps to kill fungal and viral growth within the plant tissues and have a curative action.
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ON ORGANIC FARMING
Organic growing practices utilize soil amendments, fertilizers and growth promoters as supplements to the maintenance of heightened biological activity and delivery of nutrients to plants.
Naturally occurring pesticides that are derived from plants are commonly referred to as “botanical”.
Botanicals are of interest to those concerned with pest management for a variety of health and environmental reasons. .
Botanical fertilizers like Organic fertilizer are non-toxic and has no adverse effect on the applicator unlike many synthetic pesticides that are toxic to humans and other mammals. They can be accepted in the organic market where synthetic pesticides are not allowed.
Because, in general, they break down quickly (within 100 hours), they may be also used near harvest, when control is needed but other materials may not be applied. Rapid degradation also means they are less likely to cause environmental problems.
APPLICATION AREAS IN ORGANIC FARMING
Organic fertilizer provides systemic, protective & curative functions for a variety of crops including leafy & fruiting vegetables, roots & bulbs, stable crops, tea, coffee, cocoa, tobacco, fruit trees, ornamental plants and turf.
Leafy vegetables are especially susceptible to attack from predatory insects, snails, leafminers, caterpillars, whiteflies, aphids which damage crop and reduce yield.
As a fertilizer with insect repellent and anti-feedant properties, the use of organic fertilizer on leafy vegetables have shown a great reduction of insect attack on their leaves resulting in healthier looking vegetables.
Rice is the most important cultivated crop in the majority of countries in Asia. Pests like golden snails, stem borers and fungal diseases reduce the crop yield. organic fertilizer helps to prevent snails from feeding and also adversely affects their ability for reproduction. organic fertilizer also effectively repels insects and has anti-fungal properties.
Rice crops can be badly devastated by strong winds, which topple juvenile fruiting rice stalks, resulting in loss of harvest yield by up to 30%. Through the systemic uptakes of organic fertilizer, the rice stalks are fortified to better withstand sudden strong wind gusts.
Fruit trees are usually more susceptible to attack from insects like leafhoppers, fruit flies, twig borers, scale insects and mealy bugs during their flowering stage and fruit bearing stage. Anthracnose (the most common disease caused by fungus) attacks young shoots, leaves and flowers. Fungal disease anthracnose and scab, which manifests on fruits can later cause cracking. organic fertilizer provides protective and curative functions to control these symptoms.
Improved seed germination for some species of plants are realized when seeds are soaked in organic fertilizer at 1:50 ratio for 30 minutes to 3 hours. During seed germination period, treated seeds and seedlings are less susceptible to bacterial and fungal rot. The rate of seedling growth is also increased.
Before every new crop cultivation, some soil preparation may be necessary. Loose soil with good nutrient content enables roots to penetrate the soil easily, and facilitates a steady stream of nutrient flow into the stems and leaves. It May be necessary to do some base preparation or soil conditioning in order to fully optimize the effects of organic fertilizer when applied to crops.
Nutrient availability for vegetable plants, soil microbial activity, and soil structure are all affected by soil pH. Most crops grow well at a pH range of 6.0 to 7.0. When adequate organic matter is present in soil, crops can tolerate a wider pH range. The pH of acidic soils can be corrected by adding agriculture limestone (CaCO3) or lime (CaO).
The pH of alkaline soils can be neutralized by adding sulfur, which bacteria readily oxidize to sulfate that dissolves in water to form acid, which decreases the pH of soil.
N (Nitrogen), P (Phosphorus) and K (Potassium or potash) are the three of the major nutrients that plants need. Prior to the use of any fertilizer, the soil should be tested to determine or estimate how much N P K should be added to meet the nutrient requirements for the crop to be planted.
For example, if the soil is only lacking in nitrogen, then an appropriately calculated weight of a nitrogen-rich fertilizer like urea will be used.
In the application of organic fertilizer, there may be a need to supplement the soil with mineral fertilizers, if additional N P K is required.
Plants also need a good supply of organic matter in addition to nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, copper, zinc, boron, and molybdenum and eight other nutrients.
Only under ideal conditions do native soils provide these nutrients naturally. organic fertilizer is a complete fertilizer that provides all the above essential nutrients that the plant needs.
Dilute organic fertilizer and spray onto foliage and root area. Effective spraying period is during the early morning or late evening. It breaks down rapidly (within 100 hours) in water, soil or when exposed to light, and therefore, does not create concern regarding long-term effects.